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  • Andrew Carnegie’s decision to support library construction developed using his very own experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years from the coastal town of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he heard men read aloud and discuss books borrowed via the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create. Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but were required to stop after only three years. The rapid industrialization with the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father from business. Consequently, your family sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    Andrew Carnegie’s decision to support library construction developed using his very own experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years from the coastal town of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he heard men read aloud and discuss books borrowed via the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create.www.essaycapitals.com Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but were required to stop after only three years. The rapid industrialization with the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father from business. Consequently, your family sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    Although these new circumstances required the young Carnegie to consult with work, his learning did not end. After the year within a textile factory, he became a messenger boy for those local telegraph company. Several of his fellow messengers introduced him to Col. James Anderson of Allegheny, who every Saturday opened his personal library to any young worker who wished to borrow a magazine. Carnegie later said the colonel opened the windows where the lighting of knowledge streamed. In 1853, once the colonel’s representatives attempted to restrict the library’s use, Carnegie wrote a letter towards editor within the Pittsburgh Dispatch defending the ideal of all the working boys to relish the pleasures in the library. More important, he resolved that, should he be wealthy, he makes similar opportunities suitable to other poor workers.

    During the next half-century Carnegie accumulated the fortune that may enable him to meet that pledge. Throughout his years as a messenger, Carnegie had taught himself the art of telegraphy. This skill helped him make contacts while using Pennsylvania Railroad, where he visited work at age 18. Throughout his 12-year railroad association he rose quickly, ultimately becoming superintendent in the Pennsylvania’s Pittsburgh division. He simultaneously invested in many other businesses, including railroad locomotives, oil, and iron and steel. In 1865, Carnegie left the railroad to handle the Keystone Bridge Company, that had been successfully replacing wooden railroad bridges with iron ones. Through 1870s he was being focused on steel manufacturing, ultimately creating the Carnegie Steel Company. In 1901 he sold that business for $250 million.

    Carnegie then retired and devoted the remainder of his life to philanthropy. Prior to selling Carnegie Steel he had started to consider how to deal with his immense fortune. In 1889 he wrote a famous essay entitled The Gospel of Wealth, during which he stated that wealthy men should live without extravagance, provide moderately for his or her dependents, and distribute the remainder of their riches to benefit the welfare and happiness of the common man–along with the consideration to help you only those who will help themselves. The Right Fields for Philanthropy, his second essay, listed seven fields that the wealthy should donate: universities, libraries, medical centers, public parks, meeting and concert halls, public baths, and churches. He later expanded this list to add gifts that promoted scientific research, the general spread of knowledge, and also promotion of world peace. Many of those organizations continuously this present day: the Carnegie Corporation in Ny, such as, helps support Sesame Street.

    Owing to his background, Carnegie was particularly interested in public libraries. At some point he stated a library was the very best gift to have a community, mainly because it gave people the cabability to improve themselves. His confidence was depending on outcomes of similar gifts from earlier philanthropists. In Baltimore, as an example ,, a library distributed by Enoch Pratt ended up applied by 37,000 individuals one full year. Carnegie believed the relatively few public library patrons were more value to their community when compared to the masses who chose to never take advantage of the library.

    Carnegie divided his donations to libraries on the retail and wholesale periods. Throughout the retail period, 1886 to 1896, he gave $1,860,869 for 14 endowed buildings in six communities in the us. These buildings were actually community centers, containing recreational facilities including swimming pools combined with libraries. Within the years after 1896, referred to as the wholesale period, Carnegie never supported urban multipurpose buildings. Instead he gave $39,172,981 to smaller communities which had limited usage of cultural institutions. His gifts provided 1,406 towns with buildings devoted exclusively to libraries. Over half his grants were cheaper than $ten thousand. Although lots of the towns receiving gifts were inside Midwest, overall 46 states benefited from Carnegie’s plan.

    Andrew Carnegie stopped making gifts for library construction carrying out a report made to him by Dr. Alvin Johnson, an economics professor. In 1916 Dr. Johnson visited 100 within the existing Carnegie libraries and studied their social significance, physical aspects, effectiveness, and financial condition. His final report figured that to end up being really effective, the libraries needed trained personnel. Buildings ended up provided, however right now it was time to staff them experts who would stimulate active, efficient libraries throughout their communities. Libraries already promised continued to generally be built until 1923, but after 1919 all financial support was turned into library education.

    When Andrew Carnegie died in 1919 at age 84, he had given nearly one-fourth of his life to causes during which he believed. His gifts to various charities totalled nearly $350 million, almost 90 % of his fortune. Carnegie regarded all education as a technique to maximize people’s lives, and libraries provided certainly one of his main tools for helping Americans develop a brighter future. Questions for Reading 1 1. How did progress and industrialization affect Carnegie, both when he was young, and later in life? 2. The amount of formal education did Carnegie have? What factors contributed to his desire for books and reading? 3. What did Carnegie believe wealthy people have to do along with their money? Why did he imagine that? Can you agree? 4. How did supporting libraries fit with Carnegie’s past along with his beliefs? Reading 1 was compiled from George S. Bobinski, Carnegie Libraries (Chicago: American Library Association, 1969); Andrew Carnegie, Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, reprint (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1920 1986); Barry Sears, About the Trail of Carnegie Libraries, Antiques and Collecting (February 1994); Gerald R. Shields, Recycling Buildings for Libraries, Public Libraries (March/April 1994).

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